# NSML Assumed Knowledge

Last updated: 2021-11-28

These facts will be assumed without any further commentary on contests and problems.

- All random selection is fair unless stated otherwise. (See below for details.)
- Cards
- A standard deck of 52 cards has 13 ranks and 4 suits each.
- Ranks: Ace, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Jack, Queen, King.
- Suits: clubs, hearts, diamonds, spades.
- Note: the two jokers found in some decks of cards will never be considered.
- Vocabulary: draw or deal from a deck.

- Dice
- A standard n-sided die has possible outcomes {1,2, …, n}.
- Vocabulary: die (singular) and dice (plural) are rolled.
- A fair die is one in which all outcomes are equally likely.

- Coins
- A standard coin has two outcomes: Heads and Tails.
- Vocabulary: a coin is flipped or tossed.
- A fair coin is one in which the probability of each outcome is 1/2.

- Letters
- There are 26 letters in the standard alphabet.
- Vocabulary
- Vowels are A, E, I, O, and U.
- Consonants are all 21 other letters, including Y.
- Word means any string of letters.

- Fairness
- Every possible outcome is equally likely.
- Unless a problem explicitly explains selection is unfair, fair choice should be assumed.